top of page

Antonio Salgado Borge

  • Liknedin
  • Twitter

Thank you for visiting this site!

I am a Doctor in Philosophy (University of Edinburgh, 2021). Currently I am Associate Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of St. Andrews. My area of specialisation is Early Modern Philosophy (especially Spinoza). 


I complement my academic work in philosophy with public writing on social and political issues. I have written in Mexican outlets such as Aristegui Noticias, Proceso, and


My doctoral thesis was co-supervised by Professors Alexander Douglas and Pauline Phemister, and examined by Professors Michael Della Rocca and Jennifer Marušić. In my thesis I defended the unorthodox claim that, contrary to what is commonly believed, for Spinoza the attributes constituting the essence of God, such the physical and the mental, are numerically distinct. 

My research plan for the next years aims to expand on my doctoral thesis’ master argument to posit that Spinoza’s account of the place of mentality in reality is a peculiar form of panpsychism that is broadly Cartesian.


Recent Publications

  • ‘Absolute’. Entry in the Spinoza Cambridge Lexicon edited by Karolina Hübner and Justin Steinberg. Cambridge University Press. Forthcoming.

  • ‘God or Natura Naturata? Spinoza on the Numerical Identity Between God’s Essence and all Things in Nature’. Chapter in New Perspectives on Spinoza’s Theological-Political Treatise: Politics, Power and the Imagination (Taylor and Wuth, eds). Edinburgh University Press. Forthcoming.

  • ‘Spinoza on the Distinction Between Substance and Attribute’, Philosophy. 01-03-2022. DOI: 10.1017/S0031819122000043.

bottom of page